The correct answer is the Athenians. Ancient Athens is credited with creating the first known democracy around 508-507 BC. This form of government was a direct democracy, where citizens (excluding women, slaves, and foreigners) had the right to participate in decision-making assemblies. This Athenian model of democracy was a radical departure from the monarchies and oligarchies of the time, laying the groundwork for modern democratic systems.
While the Romans did establish a complex form of republican government with elected representatives, they did not create the first known democracy. The Roman Republic, established around 509 BC, was a significant advancement in governance, but it was not a true democracy in the sense that not all citizens had equal say in the government. The Roman system was more of an oligarchy, where only a small group of wealthy and influential citizens held power.
The ancient Egyptians are known for their monumental architecture and sophisticated culture, but they were not the founders of democracy. The civilization was ruled by Pharaohs who were seen as divine figures. The government was a theocratic monarchy rather than a democracy, with power centralized in the hands of the ruling Pharaoh.
Mesopotamia, often cited as the cradle of civilization, was home to some of the earliest known human societies. While they made significant advancements in law, writing, and urban planning, they did not develop a democratic form of government. Their societies were typically governed by kings or a ruling elite.
The Indus Valley Civilization was one of the world’s earliest urban civilizations, known for its advanced city planning and architecture. However, little is known about their governance system due to the lack of decipherable written records. There is no evidence to suggest that they practiced a form of democracy.